Input and Output

From Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook
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Almost all commands produces the output to screen or take input from the keyboard, but in Linux it is possible to send output to a file or to read input from a file. Each shell command has its own input and outputs. Before a command is executed, its input and output may be redirected using a special notation interpreted by the shell. For example, sending output of date command to a file instead of to the screen. Changing the default path of input or output is called redirection.