Create the constants variable

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  • You can create the constants variables using the readonly command or declare command.
  • This will mark shell variables as unchangeable.
  • The readonly buitin syntax is as follows:
readonly var
readonly varName=value
  • The declare builtin syntax is as follows:
declare -r var
declare -r varName=value


  • Create a constant variable called DATA and make its value always the same throughout the shell script i.e. it can't be changed:
readonly DATA=/home/sales/data/feb09.dat
echo "$DATA"

Here is what it prints:


Now try to change it. For example:


You will get the following message:

bash: DATA: readonly variable
  • You cannnot unset (delete) the readonly variable. For example:
unset DATA

Sample outputs:

bash: unset: DATA: cannot unset: readonly variable

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